Why Is the Carson City Morgan Dollar So Special? The Story

Carson City Morgan Silver Dollar – Silver, Gold and Government

The Morgan Silver Dollar was minted in 1878. It was issued for American commercial use, mostly as a trade dollar with the Orient. The dollar was continuously minted until 1904.

Carson City Nevada: A group of silver mine owners had formed a lobbying group, led by Congressman Richard “Silver Dick” Bland, was able to pass legislation that made the U.S. Treasury its biggest customer.

The Comstock Lode, one of the greatest silver strikes in history, was discovered in Nevada in the late 1850s. The strike put downward pressure on silver prices worldwide. In 1878 Congress passed the Bland-Allison Act which required the Treasury Department to purchase large amounts of silver, and to strike it as coins. For reasons of economy, the Treasury chose to strike the silver as dollars (From Wikipedia).

In 1861 Carson City became the capital of the Nevada Territory, and remained the seat of state government when Nevada joined the Union in 1864. The city was founded in 1858 by Abe Curry who later became one of the most influential personalities in the territory, mostly due to the town’s riches derived from silver mining. During the “silver rush”, the population of the Nevada mining district numbered in the tens of thousands, where the scarcity of hard money made routine financial transactions difficult. The silver was shipped (over the Sierra Nevada Mountains) to the US branch mint operating in San Francisco, and then back again after being converted to coinage. This practice was very expensive and risky, as the trails were closely patrolled by opportunistic thieves.

Nevada Territory mine owners petitioned Congress for a new branch mint in their vicinity. Legislation to establish a mint in the Nevada Territory was approved on March 3, 1863. Abe Curry lobbied the government to choose Carson City as the site of the new mint. In September 1863, the federal government purchased Block 65 from private citizens in Carson City, for the purpose of constructing the coining facility.

The very first Carson City Mint coin to debut was the 1870-CC Liberty Seated silver dollar.

Government and its impact on the Carson City Mint

In 1834, the US government established the value of silver and gold at a ratio of 16 to 1.
The government specified the weight of silver or gold to be coined into one dollar worth denomination of hard money. Anyone could bring their bullion to the Mint and receive dollars worth of coins in exchange for ounces of bullion. This practice set the price the government was willing to pay per troy ounce of silver and gold (1oz Gold = 16oz Silver = $20).

This worked well until the late 1840s and 1850s, when the supply of gold increased dramatically (during California gold-rush), upsetting the existing gold-silver balance. Consequently, silver became more scarce relative to gold, meaning silver sellers could sell 16 ounces of silver to private buyers(often foreigners), for more than one ounce of gold. As a result, they often preferred to sell their silver this way rather than take it to one of the US mints for conversion into coins.

As the prolific Comstock Lode (Nevada) and mines in Colorado dumped silver into the open market, this situation reversed itself. By the mid 1870s, private buyers were purchasing 16 ounces of silver for less than one ounce of gold.

Based on the Treasury’s offer to buy silver at the ratio of 16 to 1, silver owners came to the Carson City Mint and other US mints, demanding that their silver be coined into dollars. They found out that Congress had already enacted the Coinage Act of 1873, eliminating the silver dollar, in effect, demonetizing silver and committed our country to a gold standard only. Silver advocates denounced the law and managed to persuade Congress to pass the Bland-Allison Act in 1878.

Under the Bland-Allison act, the Treasury Dept was required to purchase $2 to $4 million of silver monthly and mint it into dollar coins, in a quest to stabilize the price of silver at artificially high levels. The dollars were named after George T. Morgan, the designer of the new coin. Accordingly, large quantities of Morgan silver dollars were minted, but many did not circulate well, especially in Eastern States where silver was resented. Millions of the unused coins ended up in Treasury storage vaults for decades.

More politics

In 1884 a Democrat, Grover Cleveland was elected to the White House. In September 1885, Cleveland fired all mint employees and completely shut down the Carson City mint.

When Benjamin Harrison recaptured the presidency for the GOP in 1888, the Democratic appointees were replaced by Republicans. In 1889, Carson City mint was allocated funds to resume coining operations.

The Bland-Allison Act was modified by the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890. The Act mandated the government purchase 4.5 million ounces of silver each month, to be paid for with Treasury bonds redeemable in either gold or silver.

“Unexpectedly”, most bond holders redeemed their notes in gold, depleting the Treasury’s gold reserve and throwing the entire country into a severe financial panic in 1893, leading to the repeal of the Sherman Act and greatly slowing the production of silver dollars.

On June 1, 1893, Mint Director Robert Preston ordered a cessation of coining operations at the Carson City Mint.
The bullion supply for silver dollars ran out in 1904 and minting of silver dollars ceased.
The Pittman Act of 1918 required the government to convert silver dollars into bullion and then create an equal number of new coins from the bullion. More than 270 million silver dollars were melted down. Most of the coins were Carson City silver dollars.

To comply with the Pittman Act, production of the Morgan Silver Dollar resumed in 1921 for a brief period of time. You’d think that would be the end of the story, but it’s not. The Silver Act of 1942 resulted in the melting down of even more Morgan Silver Dollars. In fact, it’s estimated that more than 80% of the Morgan Silver Dollars that were produced are no longer in existence.

In 1962, the U.S. government began selling original Treasury bags containing 1,000 silver dollars for face value. During the early 1970s, the General Services Administration packaged and sold off most of the remaining government-owned Morgans, many of which were minted in Carson City.

“The Morgan Dollar is a silver United States dollar coin. The dollars were minted from 1878 to 1904 and again for one more year in 1921. The Morgan Dollar is named after its designer, George T. Morgan, who designed the obverse and reverse of the coin. Morgan’s monogram appears near Lady Liberty’s neck on the obverse. The dollar was authorized by the Bland-Allison Act of 1878. It has a fineness of .900, giving a total silver content of 0.77344 troy ounces (24.057 grams) per coin”

Tr Cojoc

For more information go to Coins and Rare Gold http://superhometheater.com/Coins.html

Tr Cojoc provides financial advise at
Financial Help and Guidance http://superhometheater.com/Politics/Financial.html


Google – The Best Social Environment for Equal Opportunity

The Internet is under attack by the Obama Administration through executive powers. This does not bode well for the Internet entrepreneurs or for political speech. The following is an analysis of how the Internet and specifically Google has created a free world-wide social environment. The governments of the world should study the Internet Society. They might learn something.

Google is known as a search engine for relevant information in the Internet. There are other search engines or browsers such as Yahoo, Explorer, MSN Bing, etc. However, Google is more than that just a browser.

Google has managed to create the foundation of a solid natural and free social environment, a virtual society with no geographical or language barriers.

In the name of fairness, I am strongly biased towards individual freedom. I grew up under communism but more importantly, I witnessed the transition from a free society to communism and the disappearance of freedom. The communist movement expected that all international masses will assume power and become a great world communist system. Had Google and the Internet been around in those days, communism would have embraced it and maybe would have learned something useful: Freedom of the masses can be very constructive. I wish the present politicians would take a look and learn something from the environment Google has created and it is still nurturing.

Larry Page and Sergey Brin started Google in January 1996 as a research project when they were both PhD students at Stanford University in California. Originally, Google ran under the Stanford University website, with the domain google.stanford.edu.
The domain google.com was registered on September 15, 1997. The company was incorporated on September 4, 1998, at a friend’s garage in Menlo Park, California.

The Google name comes from “Googol”. Googol refers to the number 1 followed by 100 zeros. This is such a large number that can not be achieved if you count all the sand particles on the whole universe. It was supposed to mean an infinity number of people and their interactions with no end in sight. Google runs over one million servers in data centers around the world, and processes over one billion search requests and twenty petabytes (1000 trillion) of user-generated data every day, which is an incredible achievement. Google got started with just $100,000 from a private investor.

Larry Page and Sergey Brin had a vision and a dream with a purpose: Match other peoples’ dreams and desires with each other, so all can benefit. If a vendor had a good product or service, Google made it easy for the seeking party to find it. A book author could publish and sell a book without going through a publisher. Google made it easier to promote the book. Talented individuals on a shoe string could start a home business over night. There are billions of sites on the Internet with all kinds of information or products for sale. All of that information has been posted by individuals or companies in the expectation to be found and/or shared by interested parties or prospects. Google did not create the information; private parties and institutions did.

Google’s mission was to come up with the best possible presentation to any inquiry. This is not a trivial task, certainly not on the Internet. Complex algorithms as well as site ratings are being used to connect requests with delivery sites. Before Google came into existence, the early browsers such as Netscape, MS Explorer, Yahoo and dozens more used straight forward techniques of cataloging words or phrases and associating them with relevant sites. However, when you deal with billions of sites and entries every day, it is very difficult to determine which site provides the best and most relevant information requested through a query. Using Google’s browser, the satisfactory result usually comes up on top of the first page out of millions of postings containing similar information. People would very seldom look beyond the first three pages.

Larry Page had an idea: To evaluate pages in the order of importance and relevance, they would count the number of back links to that particular site. The total amount of links and where they were coming from was also important.

For instance, if I were a small contractor designing home theaters and had no money for advertising my business, I would design a website with all sorts of instructions and drawings as a portfolio to help my prospects understand how I would deploy a project. The site will look like a tutorial. The next step would be to contact some major distributors of home theater furniture, electronics, cables, etc. and ask them to link my educational site to theirs and offer it to their customers as an educational tool for a do-it-yourself project. All parties benefit. The same concept works when someone with expertise in a particular field publishes useful information through a variety of electronic publications. The author’s link will point to his site and Google will index it and qualify it.

Google calls this new technology PageRank where a website’s relevance was determined by the number of pages and the importance of those pages is linked back to the original site.

Google was granted a patent describing their PageRank mechanism. The patent was officially assigned to Stanford University and lists Lawrence Page as the inventor. By 2006 the name “Google” had found its way into everyday language, causing the verb “google” to be added to the Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary and the Oxford English Dictionary, denoted as “to use the Google search engine to obtain information on the Internet.”

This feature was very important in the context of equal social opportunity because it enabled creativity to be distributed throughout the Internet at almost no cost to the creator. Before this technology was deployed, an Internet contender had to spend a lot of advertising dollars to promote his site. Otherwise no one could find it. The search engines did not even index it.

Since 2006, Google has added a wide range of support services and capabilities either through acquisitions or internal development. It is not my intent to do a thorough analysis of all its capabilities. I am going to outline the most important functions and the free tools provided by Google to its subscribers.

Google and its function

Google has been criticized often as being too big and too dominant in the Internet field. The critics usually fail to mention the valuable services Google provides to big and small businesses alike as well as to the individual entrepreneur. Most importantly, it provides real value to the end user, the potential consumer products and services advertised or promoted through the Internet.

Google makes money by providing a sound platform for the advertisers and a wide range of helpful free advertising tools. Google does not advertise. The advertisers do. This is a mutually beneficial relationship.

Google advertising tools

Google Analytics enables website owners to track where and how people use their website with in-depth research into getting users to go where you want them to go. It is a very powerful tool that helps the web designers correct and optimize how the information is organized and presented to prospects by monitoring their behavior while visiting the site.

Google AdSense allows website owners to display these advertisements on their website, and earn money every time ads are clicked. Google automatically places only the ads that are relevant to the content on that page. If a visitor finds any of these ads interesting, they will click and the website owner will collect a small fee. I would like the mention that these ads are offered to advertisers for pennies.

Google AdWords helps advertisers display their advertisements in the Google content network, through either a cost-per-click or cost-per-view scheme. This is a true advertising service with daily monitoring and budget control facilities. An advertiser can set up a series of ads associated with certain keywords and test its performance daily. It is interesting that Google uses a price bidding system. If you bid for a high ranking position on the top page and if your ad attracts more visitors than your competition next to you, Google will gradually decrease your ad cost. It is possible to have a very top position on the page and pay less per click than the rest below you. This encourages creativity and unique content which in turn will make your campaign more successful.

Keywords Services, all the above services would not be very useful unless you have some means of selecting the right keyword and phrases that match what your potential prospectors are looking for. Remember, you respond to written requests. Google has an extensive support service that helps in the selection of the right key words as well as monitoring the number of links associated with your competition. These powerful tools enable you to determine both the demand and the competition based on keywords alone.

There have been other services such as Gmail, Google News, Orkut and more being added as time goes by. There are no limits on creativity in a free social environment such as the one created by Google.

I am not trying to minimize the contributions of other browsers such as Yahoo and Explorer. This article is not really about Google as a browser. It is about the free international society Google has helped create through access to knowledge and economic development.

Economic impact

The cost of running a website could be as low as $5.00 per month. Blogs are free and can be used instead. The cost of entering an international business is very low. There are thousands of individuals who make a living by selling books that are often not even their own. Rock bands can record and publish their music for free. I can go on and on. All of it has been made possible, to a certain extent, by Google through its affordable promotional capabilities.

Most importantly, Google has managed to create this social environment because there was no government oversight or regulation. The only self policing policy deals with abuse of services such as spamming. When the Chinese government tried to interfere with its operations, Google decided to get out of China.


Imagine a World Governance where all freedoms are assured: Freedom of Speech, Freedom of Association, Freedom of Commerce and Freedom of Exchange of Ideas and Opinions, (including political). Internet is just that, and Google is the facilitator and the Governance.

Do not allow the government to take this away through some form of regulation in the name of “public good”.

Tr Cojoc

Tr Cojoc has assembled a series of personal stories about how destructive the communist system is. These are real life stories.
Growing up Under Communism http://superhometheater.com/communism

Tr Cojoc is an advisor on Mortgage Loan Reduction http://www.superhometheater.com/Politics/Financial.html


U.S. Manufacturing Jobs Move From Hostile To Friendly Environments

I worked in the electronics industry in various management positions expanding over 35 years. The last 20 years things have changed, for the worst. Government regulations and taxes have forced manufacturing to move out of this country.

In the early seventies, design and manufacturing of anything electronics was done in the USA. I worked for a manufacturer of hand-held calculators as an electronics designer. This company was based in New Jersey and it manufactured everything in New Jersey. Sears was their largest customer.

In mid-seventies, while working for another company, we set up a manufacturing plant in Mexico, across the border in Nogales. Many American companies did the same. Some of them are still operating there today. The same happened in Canada. The business environment was helpful and friendly, and of course the manufacturing cost was lower than in the USA.

By mid-nineties, the Mexican government started imposing all sorts of restrictions and regulations. A large number of companies shut down and left. The same happened in Canada.

Note: I had a customer in Canada who was doing a failure analysis of our products. I had to go and validate the failures and document it. I was told: “Do not bring even a screwdriver with you from USA to Canada. The customs will turn you back”. Canada was trying to protect their jobs.

In the mid-eighties I was working for an electronics company in Southern California. This company was a pioneer in communication electronic devices. It had a factory already and it needed to expand. The company invested in equipment and buildings.
By the time everything was installed and functioning, the manufacturing facility was not compliant anymore under the fast changing air quality regulations in the state of California. The new regulations forced the company to sell its facilities and move its manufacturing to Singapore and Malaysia. The company is still in business today but there is no manufacturing in this country.

Recently I was doing some consulting work for an industrial representative, representing a circuit board manufacturer in Southern California. (Circuit boards are the electronic components going into everything: cars, airplanes, refrigerators, washing machines, dryers, televisions, you name it. Everything we use.) It is impossible to open a facility like this in Southern California today due to stringent air standards. The company was a very small prototype facility. Circuit board manufacturing requires the use of certain chemicals for soldering and cleaning. There was a permanent government inspector sitting in a government owned van monitoring the air quality around this facility (every day, 8 hours/day).

Made In China Is A Misnomer

The term “Made” implies creation, design and manufacturing of a certain item. That is not what is happening with products labeled “Made in China” .

I worked for a very large electronics Taiwanese company. The company had engineering and manufacturing facilities in Taiwan. At the time, this company was the 4th largest Taiwanese company trading on the Taipei exchange, 4 billion USD. It supplied a key component required by every computer. Their top customers were Compaq, Dell, IBM and Hewlett Packard.

In the mid-nineties, the Communist China opened for business big time. It was a strategic move on China’s part. Make the country business friendly and everybody will come. And they did.

Here is the story:

The Chinese government, in the nineties, started building manufacturing facilities (concrete walls, no equipment) along the southern border, close to Hong Kong. Hong Kong was a big port and easily accessible from mainland.

Foreign manufacturing companies were provided, by the Chinese Government, manufacturing space and labor. Every factory had a built-in dormitory for workers.

Business tax liabilities to the Chinese government were forfeited for the first three years.

Business operators would bring in and install the equipment necessary, bring in part kits, and within days the Chinese government would deliver anywhere from 200 to 300 laborers to the designated facilities at pennies per hour per laborer.

If the business was slow, or it had to deal with cancellations, the operators would close down the facility for a period of time, and the Chinese government handled the labor force, transparent to the business. The government would just find new jobs for the workers and moved them practically over night. There was no obligation on operator’s side and no liability.

My employer had a pilot plant and used three independent contractors which maintained mirror manufacturing facilities as a back-up, or assigned to a specific account. This was a very large manufacturing operation. Shipping hundreds of thousands of assembled computer subsystems to the USA and Europe per month was not unusual. The Chinese government provided low level labor only. All managers and engineers were foreigners from the country of origin running the plants.

Nothing was designed in China, the material, components or parts had to be imported, management and quality control was performed by the foreign operators and the bulk of the profits were also kept by the foreign operators.

While working for this company, we had an office in Huston Texas, where Compaq computer was based. The company was interested in opening a small support and manufacturing facility in Mexico, across the border from Brownsville, TX. Mexican government made this venture quite unattractive. They demanded a minimum wage, six months severance, and many other benefits for the workers. Compared with China, it was not worth it. They would rather communicate through FAX machine and air ship product to Huston from China. It was cheaper.

Special Remarks

From an engineering aspect, our product was very simple to design. However, manufacturing it, was a different story. It could not be automated. The product contained more than 300 components, and most of them had to be assembled by hand. The quality expected by their customers was very high. This $20 dollar product required 350 manual workers. The material accounted for 75% of the cost. Labor accounted for 10%. Overhead and profit shared the remaining 10%.

Competitive Issues

When every business has equal access to this kind of environment, there is no choice, but to join in. If they don’t, they will be out of business in no time.

I am sure, by now, the labor cost is probably higher. It is all relative. USA is not even trying to entice the lost manufacturing to come back. It is the new paradigm, Service Economy. We will see how long the service economy will be able to feed the society.

Tr Cojoc

Tr Cojoc has assembled a series of personal stories about how destructive the communist system is.

These are real life stories. Growing up Under Communism http://superhometheater.com/communism


Apply For Mortgage Loan Modification – Do It Yourself

Applying for loan modification is not that complicated. You can do it yourself. The process is quite simple: Find out if you are eligible and if you are, fill out the proper forms and submit them to your bank. If you do it correctly, the bank can’t turn you down. It is as easy as filing your tax return.

You lost your job or the current job does not pay enough for you to afford the mortgage payments. Your house value is under water, so there is no equity left. You have only two options: Foreclosure and you lose the house or a home loan modification program. Federal Government provides a wide range of programs for the banks to facilitate loan modification if you qualify.

I am going to start with a very simple tutorial in finances.

Banks are in the business of making money for its customers, the individuals and business depositors. Savings accounts pay interest and checking accounts with a minimum balance are serviced free of charge. The minimum balance pays for the checking service.

The bank uses the depositors’ funds to make loans to businesses, home and car buyers and so on. All financial institutions including credit unions are performing a very important and essential service to the businesses and individuals. You can buy a car today and pay for it in installments over a three year period; the same for the house. Buy it, move in, and benefit from living in your own home, and pay as you go over a period of 30 or 15 years.

Let me make it clear: You don’t really own your car, nor do you own your house, until they are paid off. However, you treat you car and the house as your possession as you should, because your intent is to take possession.

Think about it. When the bank loans you money, it is not the bank’s money; it is someone’s or even some of your money. The bank has a fiduciary duty to insure that the money it lends returns a profit and certainly not turning into a loss.

Communist societies did not provide money lending facilities of any kind. In order to purchase a motorcycle worth $1,500 with a salary of $100 per month individuals had to save money for years, order the bike, deposit the full amount and wait for another year to take delivery.

Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are quasi governmental agencies that hold most loans the banks have sold. Dealing with the bank regarding your mortgage is the same as dealing with the Federal Government.

Think about filing your tax returns. You must know the law (the rules) and fill out the proper forms with the information you already have. If you use a tax processing agency, you are using their expertise in tax law and the filing requirements. You still have to provide the necessary information yourself. Free software available for tax submission uses a query system to get from you all relevant information. Once the information is provided, the software places it in the proper form and summits it on your behalf to the IRS. It is that simple.

Bankruptcy filling is also governed by the Federal laws. The law is very precise and specific about what qualifies to be discarded in a personal bankruptcy filling. Once you know the rules and the forms, you will submit them to a federal judge and he will make a ruling. It is not really that complicated. An attorney would charge $1,000 or more just to fill out the papers. You could have done it by buying a manual for $100.

How to approach you bank for a mortgage loan modification

As I mentioned earlier, any loan modification is subject to some form of Federal Housing Administration (FHA) rules. In the old days, when you could not pay the mortgage, there was a simple exit: You vacated the house and the bank took it over. Not anymore. Due to the government’s involvement, the banks can follow you for the rest of your life to the extent that it can even garnish you bank account or future earnings.

Remember, when you need a loan modification the bank is not your friend. The bank has become a government agent. If you qualify and submit the right information on the right forms, the government reimburses the bank for loses and you are the beneficiary.

Before approaching your bank for loan modification you have to do some important homework:

1. Find out if you are eligible.
This is very critical. You must show hardship such as loss of job, a lower paying job, major medical expense, etc. This information is available from the banks and several government agencies. Do not lie or misled. If you do, it is a federal crime. Don’t do it.

For you to understand what I am saying, I will explain how the Medicaid program works. Medicaid is a health assistance program for the poor provided by the states in conjunction with the federal government. The definition of being poor is no assets and a maximum balance of $2,000 cash in the bank. If you had more than $2,000 in assets and benefited from health services, the extra (above $2,000) had to be used to pay the medical bills. It goes into perpetuity; as soon as you accumulate any money above $2,000, the government will make sure it goes to the medical bills until they were paid off.

2. Make sure you submit the relevant information and use the right forms. Many people who applied for loan modification were told by the banks that their files were lost. The truth is that their files were in a holding bin while the bank was trying to reach the applicants for clarification.

3. Now you are qualified for a loan modification agreement. Make sure you can pay according to the agreement. You will be dealing with the government from now on. Depending on the type of agreement, there could be tax liabilities involved. If the bank agrees to reduce the principal on your loan, that will trigger a capital gain tax. Make sure you understand all implications.

4. Do not hire a “Loan Modification Broker” or a similar service that charges $1,000 or more and promises to deliver. Loan modification is a transaction between you and the bank. The bank is not interested in it; there is no money for them. You are the only party who can benefit. There is nothing a loan modification broker can do for you better than yourself.

Tr Cojoc

Tr Cojoc is a financial and political analyst.

Find out from someone who has done just that.

For more information go to Loan Modification Made Easy http://superhometheater.com/Politics/loan-modification.html

Obama and Chamberlain – Same Philosophy, Same Policy

Obama’s foreign policy resembles Chamberlain’s (British PM) while Germany was preparing for war.

WWII unlike other wars had a lasting impact on the whole world for two generations. It established a protected communist system with its spheres of influence and started the “cold war’. Thousands of people died and millions were negatively affected, mostly due to the totalitarian communist control.

Eastern Europe would have been just Europe. Think Vietnam and Korean wars. They were the net result of a pacifistic philosophy. Of course, Teddy Roosevelt was part of it to a certain extend. History speaks for itself.

Below is a synopsis of how one leader of the powerful nation of Great Britain ignored reality. Chamberlain alone could have saved millions of people from suffering, while making the whole world a better place for everybody, as of 1938 and not as of 1990 when the communism collapsed.

How about Hitler? He would have stayed as a chancellor and eventually voted out. No holocaust would have occurred. England and France had plenty of military power at the time.

Great Britain failed to stop Mussolini from invading Abyssinia (Ethiopia).That was 1935.

Chamberlain failed to stop Hitler from invading Austria. That was 1938.

Chamberlain failed to stop Hitler from invading Czechoslovakia. That was 1938.

Eden, Chamberlain’s foreign minister and some of his staff, resigned from the cabinet. They felt that Chamberlain was too much of a pacifist. “He wanted peace more than anything else”.

What is even more puzzling, Germany was financially broke while arming itself, and had no credit. England was the only country who extended credit to Hitler.

Hitler discounted France. France was too busy building their socialist society.

Remember, 1938 was a year when most European countries were becoming quite prosperous, mostly due to the industrial revolution. No more rich monarchs sucking the peasants’ blood.

Communism was on the rising and the proletarians were ready to take over the wealth from the rich and distribute it to themselves. Stalin was their God and the Germans elected Hitler as their God. Hitler was ready to deliver, and he almost did.

The British – 1938

First of all, Great Britain is not Europe. From the USA continent is seems that way. It is an island and as such had been protected over the years by the water, The English Channel. That was before the aircraft was invented.

British foreign policy was based on the concept of “the balance of power” with Britain holding the balance. In that regard, Britain had tended, when France was stronger than Germany, to support Germany; when Germany was stronger than France, to support France. Since the War I, the League of Nations has been a convenient mechanism to this end; if the League ceased to serve British purpose, Britain ignored it.

England was very pro-German even after Hitler established dictatorial rules in Germany. So were the Americas, including the United States. Many in England, such as Tories, believed that an England-German alliance would be beneficial to fend off Communist Russia, called Soviet Union. In fact England was the only ally Germany had at the time. The city of London had enormous investments in Germany. Many powerful individuals disliked France and the French; therefore tended to be pro-German. Many influential personalities believed that a stable Germany under Hitler will insure peace.

League of Nations – 1938

1918 January 8

The President of the United States of America, Woodrow Wilson, in his message on the Conditions of Peace delivered at a Joint Session of the Two Houses of the American Congress, identifies the “fourteen points” intended to serve as the basis for world peace. Point 14 says:

“A general association of nations should be formed on the basis of covenants designed to create mutual guarantees of the political independence and territorial integrity of States, large and small equally.”

The League of Nations, what is today the United Nations, was conceived by Woodrow Wilson, while the USA did not intent to become a signatory.

The league was just a mouthpiece of member states. The League decided nothing; the individual states carried all responsibilities. The Covenant was written in the assumption the United States of America would be a signatory. The League turned out to be ineffective because the participating states lacked a policeman, the United States.

In 1933, Germany and Japan withdrew from the League.

The brief history of the League may be divided into there periods. Until the Treaty of Locarno in 1925 it was for the most part the instrument of victorious powers. Then till 1933, when Germany departed, it struggled with the problem of disarmament: The allied powers refused to obey their pledges and to disarm. Since 1933 the major issue had been “collective security,” meaning an attempt to bring Germany into a security system on the basis of more or less equal rights.

In retrospect, just like today’s United Nations, the League of Nations was totally ineffective in avoiding a major conflict.

Tr Cojoc

Tr Cojoc has assembled a series of personal stories about how destructive the communist system is. These are real life stories.

He is also the author of Socialism Is Deadly.


Read his stories at Growing up Under Communism



Why Communism Collapsed? – Education!

Communism collapsed when the new leaders and the population within became educated. Liberals in the US are trying hard to dumb down education, so that this country will slowly drift towards socialism.

I grew up under communism and received most of my education there. I and my friends firmly believed that communism will collapse on itself from top down and, it was bound to happen once the leadership lost confidence that a communist society could ever work. That is exactly what happened in the end.

When my father was in his mid 30s, became on assistant professor at a prominent university, while studying for his second degree in engineering. That was in the mid 1950s, when communism was less than 10 years old. Many of his colleagues and some of his students became top managers in factories and ministries. They believed in communism and its future. That was then. After 15 years, their confidence in the system started fading. That was the beginning of the end of communism.

Communists believed in education. It was provided for free. They invested heavily in the athletic activities. They wanted to portray to the world that the communist society was vastly superior. Developing individual talent was very important and in a way, similar with what Hitler tried to do. Develop a superior race.

In the 1960s, Soviet party leadership was still based on the old loyal party activists associated with Stalin, Kruschev and later Andropv. These leaders were uneducated communist hard liners. In the 1950s Hungary tried to brake away, and the Soviets sent the Soviet army. In 1960s, Checkoslovakia tried to do the same and immediately the Soviet army showed up.

Gorbachev and Yeltsin were the first educated leaders. They could not ignore the ongoing destruction of their own society in the name of communism.

There are many valid theories regarding the collapse of communism as a social system of government. Communism has and it will always be an unstable social system for a very simple reason: It is totalitarian and requires the state police powers to muffle and to eliminate dissent. The history speaks for itself, just look at ex Soviet Union.

If the communism was so wonderful, why would it be necessary to be kept together by the strong arm of police (internal security). It was necessary because after years of empty promises, everybody was unhappy, including a large number of high level party leaders.

Economic inefficiencies and corruption was the norm. No surprise here. Soviet Union was established in 1917 and two generation later young educated people had to wait years to get into a state owned one bedroom apartment.

Socialism is not necessarily more stable. When dealing with social problems, it tends to drift towards communism. During the early days of communism, Eastern European countries, France, Italy, all had the communist party much in control of their governments. Even today, Italians can declare non confidence in their government and replace it just about any time they want. That is not stability.

Communism Collapse

The following is a synopsis of the collapse of communism and  how the Western media reported it. It did not know what to make of it.

Pay attention to this report.

“A stunning series of events between 1989 and 1991 that led to the fall of communist regimes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Faced with massive popular opposition and the unwillingness of President Mikhail Gorbachev to send Soviet troops to their rescue, communist governments lost power, first in Poland, where the communists agreed to free elections that swept into power candidates endorsed by Solidarity in June 1989.”
From answers.com

Notice the statement “unwillingness of President Mikhail Gorbachev to send Soviet troops”. By implication, the only way for the Eastern European communist governments to stay in power was with the help of Soviet troops, and it was reported by the free Western press.

First of all, the communist government of Poland agreed to free elections and President Gorbachev agreed also. He was already doing something similar in his own country. His first step was to reform communism.

Here is the rest.

“Demands for reform spread across East Germany in the fall of 1989 and led to the end of the Berlin Wall and the unification of East and West Germany. In November 1989 the communist government of Czechoslovakia resigned, and in December a violent revolution led to the overthrow and execution of Romania’s communist boss, Nicolae Ceausescu. The Bulgarian parliament revoked the Communist party’s monopoly on power in 1990, and in 1991 popular opposition forced the resignation of the communist cabinet in Albania. The failure of a communist-led coup d’état against Mikhail Gorbachev in the Soviet Union in August 1991 ended the party’s control of the military and government.”
From answers.com

President Gorbachev decided to keep his troops home. That was the end of communism.

When WW2 ended, there was little support for a communist system of government in Europe, including Eastern Europe. President Roosevelt handed over Eastern Europe to Stalin for no good reason. Eastern Europe did not attack Soviet Union, Hitler did.

Soviet Union with its army enslaved Eastern Europe under the name of communism, after the war ended.

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“Yalta agreement between US, UK and Soviet Union signed by Roosevelt set the stage for the cold war. Roosevelt had the upper hand; he did not have to give Eastern Europe to Stalin but he did.

This is socialism at work. I am not saying that socialism will happen here in the USA, but it could.

Just think free health-care or Obama becoming president.

The information presented on this site is intended to show how the socialist political leadership in Europe failed to prevent WWII and how US leadership fell into the same socialist trap that led to the cold war.

Hitler, Mussolini, Stalin and Roosevelt were socialists at heart.”

Tr Cojoc

This is my quote from Socialism Is Deadly blog I published in 2008.

Today we are facing Obama administration and a totalitarian congress.

Socialism can happen here. Read the rest of the blog to find out what this society could look like.

Tr Cojoc

Presently, Tr Cojoc is retired in California and he is advising clients in financial matters, on how to preserve capital as well as high risk investment strategies such as trading foreign currency or FOREX.

You can find out more at     Financial Adviser